法規解析
German Academia - Government - Private Enterprise collaboration model: an example of boosting Academic excellence in an entrepreneurial world.
德國產官學合作典範:創業促進學術卓越實例

作者╱北美智權法規研究組 古夏平 Charl Goussard
中文翻譯/北美智權 李儀 Bravo Li

2012.01.16

許多知識經濟體如台灣,常面對世界級學術研究成果無法商業化的不幸落差。1990年代,德國體認到,未能善用世界級研究成果,肇因於德國大學與研究機構欠缺完善創業文化。1997年,德國聯邦教育研究部啟動創意競賽,要求一區域中,學界、業界、政策界,至少一位參與的三方合作。1998年五隊勝出,共獲得共兩千一百五十萬歐元的聯邦政府補助。這些區域計畫總稱EXIST,獲名重學界的Fraunhofer機構科學支援研究。並於每季出版新聞報,分享區域發展點子。

2000年EXIST種子基金啟動,提供學生、研究生以及年輕研究助理財務支持,以助發展商務點子,並準備開展自己的公司。基金更要求申請人在發展六個月後,必須賣出創意,以對身為創業家在點子和適用性上的回饋。

EXIST計畫,成功創造德國大學,教育、研究與行政體系間的永續創業文化,幫學術研究徹底利用商業機會。EXIST培育大量商業點子,由大學與研究機構所產出並具潛力。基金降低創業者風險,以一年財務支援、發展個人創業技巧,將商業點子發展成商業計畫,許多熱切創業家因此受到激勵。

簡介

就像許多其他知識經濟體,台灣也經常面對,世界級學術研究成果無法商業化的不幸落差。

為了針對這類落差,作者找出德國諸多因應此類問題方案之一,以尋求可能解決之道。為德國聯邦政府所用來扶植學界、業界、政策間合作倡議,為人所知最成功的當屬EXIST。

1990年代,德國聯邦政府體認到,未能善用世界級研究成果,肇因於德國大學與研究機構欠缺完善的創業化。

為了呼應這項問題,聯邦教育研究部(Federal Ministry of Education and Research)啟動並補助EXIST倡議,現在則由聯邦經濟技術部(Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology)主掌。

作者在本文中,提供讀者EXIST不同階段的概要。在EXIST架構下的不同區域計畫細節,則將在以後的文章中細說。

EXIST 初始階段

始自1997年,德國聯邦教育研究部啟動創意競賽。要求一個區域中,學界、業界、政策界,都至少有一位參與的三方合作。上百份申請案中,有十二個區域的參選隊伍入圍,每隊獲得十萬歐元補助,得以準備最終評比。1998年五隊勝出,這五個區域隊伍非常多元化,各自有不同的行動概念、起始條件與各種強調重點。五個隊伍共獲得總數兩千一百五十萬歐元的聯邦政府補助,訂定在1998到2001年間完成使命。

期間,五個隊伍的計畫不光有各自的組織架構,EXIST計畫也提供五個區域跨學科支援。

首先,這些區域計畫,獲得名重學界的Fraunhofer系統技術與創新發展機構(Fraunhofer-Intitut for Systemtechnick und Innovationsforchung (ISI))科學支援研究。並且,每季出版新聞報EXIST NEWS,分享不同區域發展的點子。

EXIST種子基金

2000年EXIST種子基金(EXIST SEED FUND)啟動(見圖),目的是提供學生、研究生(申請經費起5年內可畢業者)以及年輕研究助理財務支持,以助發展商務點子,並準備開展他們自己的公司。基金並設有顧問董事會,成員來自學界、業界與財務領域專家。基金也要求申請人必須由某一大學導師指導,而申請人也必須能自由取用某高等教育機構的資源(譯者按:申請人應當是學生或是研究人員身分)。EXIST種子基金更要求申請人在發展六個月後,必須將他們的點子賣出,基本上"販售",就是對他們身為創業家在點子和適用性上的回饋。

EXIST種子基金使創業者的風險降低,以一年的財務支援、發展個人創業技巧,以及將商業點子發展成商業計畫,許多熱切的創業家因此受到激勵。

EXIST HighTEPP

EXIST種子基金,開始只在五個得獎區域施行;但自2005年起,全德國的所有大學也都享有這項計畫。

除了EXIST種子計畫,EXIST還提供EXIST HighTEPP。這是一個研究所計畫,定位在教育創業者如何開始事業。這計畫目的是,提供更高等教育機構的起始導向訓練。EXIST HighTEPP與備受敬重的夥伴如VC 公司、新創公司、管理顧問以及既成技術公司密切合作,提供跨學科領域的管理技巧。

五個區域計畫

EXIST的五個區域計畫分別是

  • Bizeps
  • Dresden exists
  • GET UP
  • KEIM
  • PUSH!

區域計畫摘要表

五個區域計畫的摘要表(見表格)中,第一橫行Bizeps、Dresden exists、GET UP、KEIM、PUSH標示了五個區域計畫的名稱。左邊第一縱行,分別標示了區域定義、大學與研究機構、人口與學生數、網路類型、永久網路夥伴數目、及成員等等。

EXIST第二階段

自2002年,十個區域入選加入EXIST計畫。所得聯邦經費明顯較少(一千萬歐元),但卻有幸受到之前五個區域參與者的指導。所有參加者分享前人的最佳範例,目前的EXIST 夥伴關係,幾乎是二十個。

EXIST第三階段

基礎建設與創業文化已然在參與區域間建立,現行EXIST的目的,是專注在使得計畫更堅強。目的是在,發展大學與研究機構創業的特殊計畫,得以受選並獲得財物支持。

結語

EXIST計畫接近尾聲,相對聯邦政府的起始狀況來看,已有相當大程度的目標業已達成。

EXIST計畫,成功創造了德國大學中,教育、研究與行政體系間的永續創業文化。EXIST幫助學術研究徹底利用商業機會;而且,EXIST培育了大量的商業點子,由大學與研究機構所產出並具潛力。

最後,EXIST讓知識為基的創始企業數目快速增加 ,因此確保並且製造了新的且永續的工作。

 

Introduction:

Taiwan, like many other knowledge-based economies, is often faced with the unfortunate inconsistency between its world class academic research result, on the one hand, and the inability to commercialize such research results, on the other hand.

In an attempt to find a possible "cure" to this inconsistency, writer explored one of the many programs Germany has employed to address their problem.  Probably the most successful initiative utilized by the German Federal Government to foster the collaboration between Academia, Business, and Policy is known as EXIST.  

During the late 90’s, the German Federal Government acknowledged that the lack of exploiting its world class research was due to an insufficient entrepreneurial culture in German Universities and research institutes.

In addressing this problem, the EXIST initiative was launched and subsidized by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and it is currently administered by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

In this article, writer gives a brief overview of the various phases of EXiST.
The various regional programs under EXIST, will be described in more detail in a follow-up article.

The first phase of EXIST:

To foster a more thriving collaboration between German academia and business, the German Federal Ministry of Education launched a competition of ideas in 1997. It required a cooperation of at least 3 different partners from a region, including at least one partner from a higher education institute, one from business, and one from policy.

Initially, more than 100 applications were submitted, but these were narrowed down to 12 regional finalist. The finalists were invited to present complete business plans showing how they planned to reach their goals. Participants were specifically asked to submit letters of commitment from business, research and policy to support the regional programme financially or in kind. The 12 regions each received approximately €100,000 to prepare their final presentation.

Then, in 1998, five winning partnerships were chosen from the 12 finalists. What was significant at that stage is that the diversity of the regions were clearly reflected in the diversity of concepts for action, starting conditions and varied emphasis submitted by each region. Each region differed from the others in structure and organization. The five winning regions received € 21.5 mil (together in total) from the Federal Government between 1998 and 2001 to fulfill their commitments.

While each regional programme had its own structure and organisation, the EXIST programme provided some interdisciplinary support to all 5 regions.

First, the regional programs received scientific support research from the esteemed Fraunhofer-Intitut for Systemtechnick und Innovationsforchung (ISI). Furthermore, EXIST NEWS was published quarterly, sharing ideas from developments in the various regions.

 

In addition, in 2000, the EXIST SEED FUND was started.
The purpose of this programme was to offer financial support for students, graduates (who graduated less than 5 years prior to applying for funding), and young research assistants, to develop their business ideas and to prepare for the setting up of their own companies. EXIST SEED was advised by the EXIST Advisory Board, who consisted of experts from the academic world, industry, and finance. EXIST SEED required that
Applicants had to be guided by a mentor at one of the universities and that they should have free access to resources at an institute of higher education. Furthermore EXIST SEED required applicants to "sell" their ideas after six months of development – this "sale" was basically a feedback on their ideas and suitability as entrepreneurs.

EXIST SEED FUND provided reduced risk for entrepreneurs. By offering financial support for one year, development of the individual’s entrepreneurial skills, and competent EXIST network support for the development of a business idea into a business plan, many aspiring entrepreneurs were motivated.

EXIST SEED was initially only available at the 5 winning regions, but since 2005, the programme is available at all German Universities. 

In addition to the EXIST SEED programme, EXIST also offers EXIST HighTEPP.
EXIST HighTEPP is a post graduate programme which is oriented at educating entrepreneurs for start-up businesses.  The aim of this programme is to provide start-up oriented training at higher education institutions. EXIST High TEPP works closely with respected partners such as VC companies, start-up firms, management consultants and established technology firms to provide interdisciplinary management skills. 

Five Regional programs:

The five initial regional programs were:

  • Bizeps
  • Dresden exists
  • GET UP
  • KEIM
  • PUSH!

Below is a summary of these regional programs. Writer will explore each of these programs in a follow-up article to this one. Note that the summary is bases on information for 2004:

 

bizeps

Dresden exists

GET UP

KEIM

PUSH!

Definition of Region

High density industrial; Rural surroundings

Centered on City of Dresden

4 locations of higher education;
Not spatially connected

Large area, including Karlsruhe technology region, city of Pforzheim and Enz

Large area, including city of Stuttgard as economic and administrative center, high density industrial area

University &
Research Institution

3 universities (univ.)

1 technical univ.,
1 univ. of applied science,
Large number of non-univ. research institutes

2 univ.;
2 univ of applied sciences;
numerous non-univ. research institutes

1 univ.;
2 univ. of applied sciences;
One teacher training univ.; numerous nn-univ. research institutes

2 univ.;
Numerous univ. of applied sciences;
1 teacher training univ.;
Numerous non-univ research institutes

Population; Number of students

1.7 mil inhabitants;
17 500 students

1.07 mil inhabitants;
31 400 students

461 000 inhabitants;
27 000 students

1.3 mil inhabitants;
28 000 students

2.5 mil inhabitants;
36 000 students

Type of Network

Polycentric Network;
Overall project coordinated by Transfer Office – Wuppertal Univ.; Clearly demarcated work areas and responsibilities for representatives.

University centered network;
Incorporated non-univ. research centers, international corporations, partners from financial sector.

Multi-participant-network;
Large number of partners involved in varying degrees;
Dominated by a few higher education institutions

Network centered on several higher education institutes and research institutes; KEIM e.V. is co-ordinating agency.

Multi-participant-network;
Large number of partners involved in varying degrees;
Dominated by a few higher education institutions

Number of permanent Network partners

22

49

70+

19

100(25 key players)

Staff

5

8

5 (8 academic assistants)

3 in information and project office , others in KEIM centres

6 at PUSH! – others at projects

The second phase of EXIST:

Since 2002, an additional 10 regions were chosen to join the EXIST programme. These 10 new regions received considerably less funding from the Federal Government (€ 10 mil), but they’ve had the fortune of being coached by the model 5 original EXIST participants. Best practice records are shared between all the participants of EXIST. Currently, there are now almost 20 EXIST partnerships.

The third phase of EXIST: 

Since the infrastructure and entrepreneurial culture has been established in the participating regions, the current aim of EXIST is to focus on a stronger project nature. Particular programs, which aim at developing entrepreneurship at universities as well as research institutions, are chosen for financial support.

 

Conclusion:

Nearing the end of the EXIST programme, it can be said that the initial objectives of the Federal Government has, to a large extent, been met.

The EXIST programme has succeeded in creating a sustainable culture of entrepreneurship in education, research and administration in Germany’s Universities.
Furthermore, EXIST has helped to thoroughly utilize the commercial possibilities of academic research. Also, EXIST has helped to nurture the enormous potential of business ideas generated by universities and research institutes. Finally, EXIST has contributed to an escalating number of knowledge based start-ups, as a result securing and generating new sustainable jobs.

 

Sources:

1. http://www.exist.de/englische_version/index.php#

2. http://www.bmbf.de/pub/exist-status_and_prospects.pdf

3. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/51/60/40208728.pdf

根據「德國產官學合作典範:創業促進學術卓越實例」一文中所述
台灣在產官學合作方面,可向德國效法的部分有:

啟動創意競賽發掘有創意團隊
創意競賽要求一區域中,學界、業界、政策界,至少一位參與的三方合作
勝出隊伍獲得高額政府資金補助,因此得以完成競賽計畫並將創意商品化。
More......
   
 

截止日期:2012/02/16

 


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